Lesson plan can be found here.
According to researchers, over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. This has resulted in a loss of feeling connected to the natural world (Miller, 2005). Teenagers are no exception. Take a look at the teenagers you know; it’s likely that technology dominates their lives. Cell phones are great but they also mean an endless loop of alerts from Snapchat, Twitter, Tumblr, texts, and alarms. My own students spend very little time outside but admit to spending most of their time using technology. Can we harness this obsession with technology in a way that helps students connect with nature?
Research from the National Kids’ Survey suggests that by combining nature activities with technology teachers can help teens become interested in nature and more knowledgeable about local biodiversity (Larson, Green, & Cordell, 2011). In my experience, and that of many researchers, few teenagers can name species found in their own ecosystem (Adams, et al., 1987). They know a lot about elephants, lions, apes, and dolphins thanks to research projects in the primary grades but they can rarely recognize a catbird, fisher, bobcat, or piping plover.
As teachers, we can help students develop a connection with nature and local biodiversity by designing lessons that provide opportunities for students to interact with the natural world (Miller, 2005). Lesson plans that get students outside and engaged with their local environment can help to develop a more environmentally-aware public (McKinney, 2002). Positive experiences with nature are the primary factor in developing environmental concern in students (Wilson, 1997).
In the lesson linked above students investigate a species of flora/fauna found in their schoolyard and coupled with the classroom activities in biology they become more knowledgeable about local biodiversity.
In English class, this lesson occurs as part of a year-long unit of study. Students are encouraged to use nature to become better readers and writers while studying local biodiversity. Jose Caamaño points out that teachers are in a unique position to be allies of biodiversity and environmental change but that the burden can not fall to just science teachers (Caamaño, 2011). Yucel and Ozkan (2015) found that students obtain the most environmental information from activities in the curriculum that allow them to be engaged in nature, specifically those that allow them to find a special place in their local area.
The first step in conservation is education and teachers have a responsibility to help students recognize and value the biodiversity that surrounds them. Menzel & Bogeholz (2010) find that helping students develop an appreciation for biodiversity is difficult but in their work they learned that teaching students to identify native plants in the school yard contributed to an appreciation for biodiversity (2010). As Ramadoss & Poyya Moli (2011) and Wilson (2002) point out, the world is in the midst of a biodiversity crisis (or sixth extinction). Teachers of all subjects are being asked to adapt a conservation-minded approach to education with a focus on helping students connect to their local environment in order to appreciate the biodiversity in their immediate area (Ramadoss & Poyya Moli, 2011). If students learn to recognize the abundance of species in their own environment perhaps they will value it more. When biodiversity activities are practical and meaningful they have the potential to shape students’ attitudes towards biodiversity (Ramadoss & Poyya Moli, 2011). Collado, Corraliza, Staats, & Ruiz (2015) find in their cross-sectional study that “frequency of contact with nature” enhances adolescents’ pro-environmental behavior.
English teachers can use field studies, such as this one, as a means to get students outside and feeling connected to nature. By investigating species found nearby students will become more knowledgeable about local biodiversity and can serve as advocates for the environment. Prior to going outside, students will immerse themselves in nature writing such as David Haskell’s The Forest Unseen. In this unit, students read Dr. Haskell’s book during the summer and reread selected portions before each field study. The text is used as a mentor in both English and biology class. During the first field experience students adopted a square meter of space as their mandala, an adaptation of Dr. Haskell’s inspiration for his book (Haskell, 2012). Students then write about their experiences and share their knowledge with their peers. In this lesson students will write poetry and/or prose about the eco-art they create. That writing will be shared with the wider school community via a bulletin board. Through these assignments, students learn about the biodiversity in the school yard and share that knowledge with others through writing.
Adams, C., Thomas, J., Lin, P., and Weiser, B. (1987). Urban high school students’ knowledge of wildlife. In Adams L. & Leedy D. (Eds.), Integrating man and nature in the metropolitan environment (Pages. 83-86). Columbia, Maryland: National Institute for Urban Wildlife.
Caamaño, J. (2011). A vision of conservation from school. Conservation Biology, 25 (6), 1091-1093.
Collado, S., Corraliza, J. A., Staats, H., & Ruiz, M. (2015). Effect of frequency and mode of contact with nature on children’s self-reported ecological behaviors. Journal Of Environmental Psychology, 4165-73. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.11.001
Haskell, D. G. (2012). The forest unseen: a year’s watch in nature. New York: Viking.
Larson, L. R., Green, G. T., & Cordell, H. K. (2011). Children’s Time Outdoors: Results and Implications of the National Kids Survey. Journal Of Park & Recreation Administration, 29(2), 1-20.
McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation: The impacts of urbanization on native species are poorly studied, but educating a highly urbanized human population about these impacts can greatly improve species conservation in all ecosystems. BioScience, 52(10), 883-890.
Menzel, S., & Bogeholz, S. (2010). Values, Beliefs and Norms that Foster Chilean and German Pupils’ Commitment to Protect Biodiversity. International Journal Of Environmental And Science Education, 5(1), 31-49.
Miller, J. (2005). Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20(8), 430-434.
Ramadoss, A., & Poyya Moli, G. (2011). Biodiversity Conservation through Environmental Education for Sustainable Development–A Case Study from Puducherry, India.International Electronic Journal Of Environmental Education, 1(2), 97-111.
Wilson, R. (1997). A sense of place. Early Childhood Education Journal,24(3), 191-194.
Yucel, E. O., & Ozkan, M. (2015). Development and implementation of an instructional design for effective teaching of ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental issues. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 15(4), 1051-1068.